The foundation or the base of a structure is an important architectural structure that bears the weight of the house or building. There are two basic categories of foundation, the deep foundation and the shallow foundation. When constructing a house, hiring St. Louis foundation repairs contractors is important because they know about the foundation engineering. This process is the application of the rock mechanics and soil mechanics in the design of the structural foundation elements.
Before the pier and beam foundation and slab concrete foundation made its way to the foundation engineering, historically buildings and other structures have different type of foundation before. Way before concrete is used, people built foundation with wood. One of the example is the post-in-ground which technically, the structure doesn’t have any foundation. The wood like timber pilings is made contact with the ground, even below the masonry walls.
One of the simplest foundations before is the pad stone. You can see these kinds of foundations on houses which are really old, most likely on the tropical areas. A single stone is set on the ground then the timber is put above it. Basically, that stone bears the weight of the entire structure.
Stone foundations are also a thing before. After the construction, the stones are painted with mortar. Another type is the rubble trench foundation which is filled with stones or rubble. They extend below the frost line and have the capacity to carry more than 10 tones.
Nowadays, you can rarely see those traditional types of foundation in homes. Most of the structure with those foundations is already not occupied or damaged. The modern construction offers you the newest type of foundation which is the shallow foundations and deep foundations.
The shallow foundations are embedded in the soil. The most common type is called the spread footing which consists of pads of strips of concrete. The weight of the structure is transferred from the columns and walls to the bedrock or soil. Another common type we can see on most houses is the slab-on-grade foundation. The concrete slab is placed at the surface, and then the weight is transferred to the soil. The materials can be post-tensioned slabs or reinforced slabs.
Another category of foundation is the deep foundation. The weight of the structure is transferred to the subsoil’s stronger layer from the upper weak layer. The footings of this type of foundation are helical piles, drilled shafts, driven piles, each stabilized columns, geo-piers and many more.
Another type of modern foundation is the monopole foundation. It uses a large-diameter and single element that carries the entire load of the structure. This element is embedded into the Earth. This type of foundation can be found on offshore wind farms, especially that the embedded element can also withstand strong winds aside from the weight of the structure.
The foundation is designed depending on the location of the structure, the condition of the soil, the type of structure, the climate condition, and the slope. So it’s important to always consult with a professional to successfully design one.